Norman Doidge in The Brain That Changes Itself has amazing stories of how the brain can adapt to challenges, refuting the “hard-wired” theory of brain functioning and explaining how with dedicated training habitual ways of thinking can be reprogrammed. Providing scientific justification for the theories of creation through thought and the power of positve thinking, the author cites sources showing how this occurs physiologically. As an example in one study, one group did body strengthening exercises. The second group went through visualizations of doing the exercises, without actually moving. Strength increase with exercise: 30%. With visualization: 23%. This theory also encourages caregivers of stroke and other brain damage victims to provide intense rehab, which can result in dramatic recoveries as the brain grows new pathways. He asserts that the brain challenged at any age will not only remain more alert, it will grow more interconnections.